< MMXIII = 2013 >
Events in 2013
|1 January:|| ||The United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait, partnered in the Gulf Cooperation Council, introduce a monetary union.|
|14 January:|| ||The Julian calendar including its New Year's Day is delayed by 13 days.|
|21 January:|| ||Martin Luther King Day is celebrated in the United States the third Monday each year since 1986.|
|10 February:|| ||At this Chinese New Year the Dragon makes way for the Year of the Snake.|
|27 March:|| ||Jews celebrate Pesach for the next seven or eight days.|
|31 March:|| ||The resurrection of Jesus Christ is celebrated on Easter Sunday after the first full moon after the spring equinox since the Council of Nicaea in 325.|
|19 May:|| ||Seven weeks after Easter Christians celebrate Pentecost, possibly since 68 AD.|
|26 June:|| ||The thirty days of Ramadan in the Islamic year 1434 begin at the first sighting of the lunar crescent.|
|26 July:|| ||Muslims celebrate the Conclusion of the Fast on the first day of the month Shawwal.|
|14 September:|| ||Jews celebrate Yom Kippur since sunset last night.|
|2 October:|| ||Muslims celebrate the Festival of Sacrifice on the tenth day of the month Dhu al-Hijjah.|
|24 December:|| ||Christmas Eve starts off the holidays celebrating the birth of Jesus of Nazareth.|
The year 2013 is a common year starting on a Tuesday, just like 1918, 1929, 1935, 1946, 1957, 1963, 1974, 1985, 1991 and 2002 in the century before it and 2019, 2030, 2041, 2047, 2058, 2069, 2075, 2086, 2097 and 2109 in the next.
The coloured days highlight
other historical milestones, and recurring events such as anniversaries and
icons indicate the phases of the moon and appear only for dates in the Gregorian calendar, i.e. after 14 October 1582. The Chinese calendar is available only from 1645 to 2644, the first millenium since the last reform. The coloured columns mark the Sundays, the last day of the week per standard ISO-8601.
The calendar has evolved in subtle ways over the centuries. Eh, make that millenia. It is designed to keep track of the sun, the appearances of the moon and the cycle of the seasons, but each plays a different tune with a very different rhythm. This has led to a variety of calendar systems throughout the world. The Gregorian calendar in common use today is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who last revised the system in 1582. There is no Gregorian calendar before 15 October 1582. Until then, people lived with the Julian calendar, which had been established by Roman dictator Julius Caesar in 46 BC. The main difference between the two systems—the only one in fact—is a small but crucial finetuning of the leap year rule. The twelve months of the Roman calendar can be traced back to the Egyptians, but the number of days varied depending on astronomical discoveries, political maneuvering and other unpredictable factors. Caesar fixed this and proclaimed that every fourth year would have an extra day to account for the fact that the length of the year is not an round number of days. But his solution was a crude one, leaving the average year eleven minutes too long. Every 128 rotations of the earth around the sun (years) the counting of the earth's rotations around its axis (days) grew out of step by one additional day.
The issue became a real problem by the Middle Ages, when the error had accumulated to ten days, but no one could agree on a solution. The Italian physician Aloysius Lilius (±1510-1576) succeeded in designing a definitive calendar reform, and after his death his plan was presented to the pope. A papal commission responded with a favourable decision, after which the papal bull “Inter gravissimas” was issued on 24 February 1582, announcing the reform. It was decided to skip three leap days every 400 years: only century years that are divisible by 400 would be leap years as well. Because ten days had to be eliminated to repair the error that had built up over time, Thursday 4 October of that year was immediately followed by Friday 15 October. The independent seven day rhythm of the week was not affected.
The catholic countries around the Mediterranean followed the pope's instructions promptly, but in other regions there was less enthusiasm. England lived with the Julian calendar until September 1752, when eleven days had to be skipped, Russia made the transition in 1918, dropping thirteen days in February. The last country to adopt the Gregorian calendar as its own was China in 1929. Since that time the Gregorian way of counting has had a worldwide monopoly, although many of its peculiarities are as arbitrary as anything “for historical reasons”.
The Calendar Converter has more details on the Gregorian, Julian, Hebrew, Islamic, Persian, Mayan and other calendar systems and provides a calculator to express any date in fourteen different ways. A year, twelve months, 52 weeks, 365 days, 8760 hours, the significance of the numbers is often overrated. Older people will know, as time goes by, times goes faster.
URL: < http://4umi.com/year >, created 23 January 2011, changed 13 September 2012, served 20 May 2013.