Wednesday 1 October 2014, 15:13:33
1 October 331 BC
: Alexander the Great defeats Darius III and conquers Persia at the Battle of Gaugamela in Mesopotamia.
1 October 1850
: The University of Sydney is founded, the first in Australia.
1 October 1867
: The first volume of “Das Kapital” by Karl Marx is published.
1 October 1960
: Nigeria, a British protectorate since 1901 and autonomous federation since 1954, gains independence.
1 October 1964
: The Tōkaidō Shinkansen begins its high speed railway service in Japan, shortening the travel time between Tokyo and Osaka from seven to four hours.
1 October 1972
: Louis Leakey, British archaeologist who did much to further the understanding of human evolutionary development in Africa, dies in London at age 69.
1 October 1978
: The Ellice Islands archipelago gains independence from Britain, changing its name to Tuvalu and becoming the smallest country on the planet after Vatican City.
1 October 2009
: The oldest known hominid fossil, 4.4 million years old Ardipithecus ramidus
Ardi, found in Ethiopia in 1992, is described in the journal Science.