Wednesday 25 April 2018, 20:59:15
25 April 404 BC
: Athens surrenders to Sparta, bringing the Peloponnesian War to an end after thirty years of hostilities.
25 April 1213
: Pope Innocent III issues the papal bull “Quia maior” around this time, calling for the Fifth Crusade to recapture Jerusalem.
25 April 1529
: A group of German princes and free cities petitions the Reichstag
at Speyer against the 1521 ban of Martin Luther and call for the unhindered spread of his teachings, known henceforth as Protestantism.
25 April 1599
: Oliver Cromwell, English army officer and politician, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, is born in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire.
25 April 1644
: Chongzhen, the last emperor of the Ming dynasty, commits suicide when Beijing is sacked in a popular Chinese uprising.
25 April 1719
: English writer Daniel Defoe publishes “Robinson Crusoe”.
25 April 1744
: Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer, dies in Uppsala at age 42, two years after developing a temperature scale where water freezes at 100 and boils at 0, revered by Linnaeus the next year.
25 April 1792
: Nicolas Pelletier, convicted thief, is the first person to be executed by means of the guillotine in front of the Hôtel de Ville in Paris.
25 April 1815
: Giovanni Caselli, Italian physicist and inventor, is born in Siena.
25 April 1859
: British and French engineers begin digging the Suez Canal in Egypt for its opening in November 1869.
25 April 1874
: Guglielmo Marconi, Italian radio pioneer, is born in Palazzo Marescalchi in Bologna.
25 April 1898
: The Spanish–American War is declared.
25 April 1900
: Gladwyn Jebb, British diplomat, first (acting) Secretary-General of the United Nations, is born in Firbeck Hall, Yorkshire.
25 April 1947
: Johan Cruyff, Dutch footballer, Football Player of the Century, is born in Amsterdam.
25 April 1974
: A military coup in Lisbon, known as the Carnation Revolution, turns Portugal from an authoritarian dictatorship into a democracy.